Parchments' Digital Images Archive

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Digitized image of a parchment

Archival description

Writing principles of personal names

Writing principles of place names

Copying conditions and payment


Abbreviations and their translation

Search and view the Image Archive  


To search the archive, click on the link Parchments, then choose the ways to view or search the archive. For the best view, please install Baltic font and choose  Baltic (Windows) encoding.

Collection (signatures of the parchments in the archive are indicated)
View all the documents in the archive by clicking on the parchment signature (for example, F1-1, F1-2 etc.). If you know the signature, type it into the Search window and press “Search”.

Indexes of Personal and Place names. Click on the necessary letter to open lists with personal and place names. Indexes give all the orthographic variants of a personal and place name in alphabetical order. Click on the necessary personal or place name, to view the search result. Click on the necessary parchment signature to open the page with its digital image. If you choose one of the orthographic variants of a personal or place name, a mouse-click will lead you to the main standardized form of that name with the parchment signature. Return to the search result in the index by clicking “Back” in the toolbar. Some place names in the indexes are subject-headed, for example, suburbs of Vilnius, Vilnius chapter; family relations and/or posts are mentioned next to a person’s name. Abbreviations and their translation are given on the Help page.

Search. It is possible to search for a document according to the Document group and/or Time Period. Select a document group in the expanding menu (“Any”, “Sovereign” etc.) and/or Time Period (12 c., 13 c. etc.) and click “Search”. Search results – signatures and titles of the documents found – are listed in the window. Click on the necessary title (or signature) to go to the page with the digital image. To return to the search results click "Back" in the toolbar.

Digitized image of a parchment  


Each parchment is given a separate page with the following information: document signature, title, view and description. Links under the image allows choosing a different view of the document (“Reverse”, “Seal” etc.). The number of links indicates the number of parchment images available. In order to have another view of the parchment, follow the appropriate link. Click on the image to open a separate window with a larger view of the parchment. If the parchment is very large size, you will see a fragment of the document. The full image of the parchment can be found in the Manuscripts Department of the Library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences.

To close the window, click on X on the upper right corner.

To return to the search window, click “Back” in the toolbar or activate the title of the archive on top of the window.


Archival description  



Short archival description of a parchment document in the Digital Image Archive presents the following elements:

1. The signature of a manuscript item: it consists of the fund number and the document number. The numbering is not consistent; the former fund numbering is retained.

2. Title: it includes issuer, type and addressee of the document.

3. Digital images of a parchment. Several images are provided (75 dpi, JPG):

  1. general view of the verso of a parchment, with a seal;

  2. the reverse of the parchment (to read the records on the reverse, to find out the provenance);

  3. any seals (the number of the images depends on the number of the seals).

4. Place of origin: a clear, established and standardized place name is given; if there is no established standard, the place name is provided in the original form with the suggested standard form given in square brackets. If the place is not indicated, it is marked with s.l. (sinum locum without place).

5. Document date: it is given in Arabic numerals. “If a document is dated by indict or the year is given from the beginning of the world (in documents written in Cyrillic), the parchment is dated according to the present calculation from the Birth of Christ. Some documents that are written in Latin are, according to the medieval custom, dated according to the Church calendar: the church feast or the day of the week before or after that feast is indicated. These dates are also given according to the present calendar.” (Rimantas Jasas Parchment Catalogue, p.10).

6. The contents of a document: short information about the subject of the document and important persons and places mentioned in the document are given.

7. Postscripts, signatures etc: original texts of the postscripts are given; these are usually signatures of the persons responsible for the preparation of the document or formulas for the naming of these persons. If the text is assumed, it is given in square brackets.

8. Seal description: if the seal remains, then the following information is given: its name (if available), material, colour and way of affixing it. Size of the seal is given in millimeters, with the protective wax bowl not included. If the seal is round, its diameter is given; if the seal is oval, its height and width are given. If the seal did not survive, its remains are described or the way of affixing it is mentioned.

9. Language in which the document is written is indicated.

10. Physical data: the number of folios, the maximum measures in centimeters of the folio and of the text are given. The fist figure indicates height, the second – width. These figures are followed by the number of text lines. Remarks on the physical condition of the parchment is given as well as the date of restoration or repairs.

11. Illumination: the decoration of the text, various signs, near the main text are described.

12. Related documents: for the convenience of the readers, signatures of the documents which are in any way related to the described one are given (e.g. confirmation of the privilege, the same addressee of the document etc.).

13. Provenance: signs of ownership (labels) of the former and present owners put on the parchment are mentioned.

14. Bibliography gives information about the publication of the document, their mentioning in the registers, catalogues etc. This information is not complete because we do no have the bibliography of the documents published by Lithuanian History. Bibliographical records are abbreviated, given in chronological order, with numbers of pages and numbers of the records indicated. Full bibliographical records can be found in Bibliography.

Writing principles of personal names  


Personal names are written according to several principles:

Names of famous people in history and standardised widely used names are written in the usual form of the Lithuanian language. Latin or West Russian forms of names are included into the Index of Personal Names.
Other names and surnames, originating from the territorial lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania are standardised by adding suffixes -avičius, -evičius.
Names of the persons from foreign countries are written in their original form, adding the endings -as,
-us, -is.

If a name, in the opinion of the catalogue compiler, could have a different standard form, the form found in the document is given in brackets in the short description.

Names in the Index of Personal Names are given in alphabetical order in the search window.

Orthographic variants of the same name are also given in alphabetical order and/or a summary list of them is given next to the main, standardised form.

Writing principles of place names  


Place names are written according to several principles:

  1. If the place is exactly located, then the standardised Lithuanian place name is given, putting the original form in the Index of Place Names.
  2. If the place cannot be exactly located or if there is no standardised Lithuanian name for it, the name is written according to the rules of the Lithuanian language; the original form, given in the text, follows in brackets.
  3. If a place name has several orthographic variants, we include them all into the Index of Place Names in alphabetical order and/or next to the main standardised form.
  4. If the place is not indicated, it is marked with s.l. (sinum locum without place).

Copying conditions and payment  



High quality digital copies can be studied at the Manuscripts Department of the Library of Lithuanian Academy of Sciences. Under special arrangement, readers and publishers may obtain copies of these images. Copies can be ordered at the Manuscripts Department of the Library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences or by e-mail: or



1.Dogiel – Codex diplomaticus Regni Poloniae et Magni Ducatus Litvaniae / Ed. M. Dagiel, Vilnae, 1764, t. 5.

2.Lelewel - Lelewel, J. Dodatek do rozprawy Daniłowicza w N(ume)rze 17 umieszczoney o Dyplomatyce Ruskiey // Dziennik Warszawski, 1826, t. 6.

3.ZPP – Zbiór praw y przywilejów miastu stołecznemu W.X.L. Wilnowi nadanych na źądanie wieku miast koronnych, jako teź Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego. / ułoźony y wydany prziez P. Dubińskiego. Wilno, 1788.

4.Baliński – Baliński, M. Historia miasta Wilna. Wilno, 1836, t.1-2.

5.KDWP – Kodex dyplomatyczny Wielkiej Polski: zawierający bulle papieźów, nadania ksąźat, przywileje miast, klasztorów i wsi, wraz z innemi podobnej treści dyolomatami, tycącemi się historyi tej prowincyi od roku 1136 do roku 1597 / zebrany z materialłów przez Ed.K. Raczyńskiego. Poznan, 1840.

6.Kraszewski – Kraszewski, J.I. Wilno od początków jego do roku 1750. Wilno. 1840, t.1.

7.SDGA – Собрание древних грамот и актов городов: Вильны, Ковна, Трок, православных монастырей, церквей, и по разным предметам. Вильно, 1843, ч.1-2.

8. Schirren - Verzeichniss livländisher Geschichts - Quellen in Schwedischen Archiven und Bibliotheken // von C. Schirren. Dorpat, 1861, h.1, p.22.

9.AZR – Акты, относящиеся к истории Западной России, собранные и изданные Археографическою коммиссиею. Санктпетербург, 1863, т. 1; 1865, т.4.

10.SGČA – Собрание государственных и частных актов, касающихся истории Литвы и соединенных с ней владений (от 1387 до 1710 года), изданное Виленскою археологическою коммиссиею / Под ред. М. Круповича. Вильно, 1858, ч.1.

11.Daniłowicz – Skarbiec diplomatów papiezkich, cesarskich, królewskich, ksiąźęcych, uchwał narodowych, postanowień róźnych władz i urzędów, poslugujących do krytycznego wyjaśnienia dziejów Litwy, Rusi Litewskiej i ościennych im krajów / Zebrał i trześci opisał Ig. Daniłowicz. Wilno, 1860-1862, t.1-2.

12.Theiner – Vetera Monumenta Poloniae et Lithuaniae gentiumque finitinarum historiam illustrantia maximam partem nondum edita ex tabulariis Vaticanis depromta/ collecta ac serie chronologija disposita ab A.Theiner. Romae, 1861, t.2.

13.ASb – Археографический сборник документов, относящихся к истории Северо-Западной Руси, издаваемые при управлени Виленскаго учебнаго округа. Вильна, 1867-1904, т.1-14.

14.RO VPB – Рукописное отделение Виленской публичной библиотеки. Вильна, 1871, вып.1

15.KDW – Kodeks dyplomatyczny Wielkopolski. Poznan, 1877, t.1.; 1879, t.3.

16.CEV – Codex epistoliaris Vitoldi magni ducis Lithuaniae 1376-1430 (Monumenta medii aevi historica res gestas Poloniae illustrantia, t.6) / Collectus opera A.Prochaska. Cracoviae, 1882

17.Lewicki – Lewicki, A. Index actorum saeculi XV ad respublicas Poloniae spectantium, quae quidem typis edita sunt exeptis his ...(Monumenta medii aevi historica res gestas Poloniae illustrantia, t.11.). Cracoviae, 1888.

18.AVAK – Акты, изда ваемые Виленскою археографическою комиссиею. Вильна, 1879, т.10; 1893. т.20.

19.ORO – Описание рукописного отделения Виленской Публичной библиотеки. Вильна, 1897-1906, вып.2-5.

20.ALRG – Акты Литовско-Русскаго государства. (1390-1529 г.) / Изд. М. Довнар-Запольский. Москва, 1899, вып.1.

21.Kurczewski – Kurczewski, J. Kościół zamkowy czyli katedra wileńska w jej dziejowym, liturgicznym, architektonicznym i ekonomicznym rozwoju. Wilno, 1910, cz.2.

22.Jablonskis - Jablonskis, K., Nauji Vytauto laikotarpio aktai // Praeitis, Kaunas, 1932, t.2, p.405.

23.KDKDW – Kodeks dyplomatyczny katedry i diecezji Wileńskiej. (1387-1507) / Wyd. J. Fijałek i W. Semkowicz. Kraków, 1948, t.1.

24.LIŠ –Lietuvos istorijos šaltiniai. Vilnius, 1955, t.1

25.Stz – Studia źródłoznawcze. Warszawa – Poznań, 1964, t.9.

26.ISS – Источники и историография славянского средневековья. Москва, 1967.

27.Jasas – Pergamentų katalogas / Sudarė R. Jasas. Vilnius, 1980.

28.Vitoldiana – Vitoldiana. Codex privilegiorum Vitoldi Magni Ducis Lithuaniae 1386-1430 // zebrał i wydał J.Ochmański. Warszawa-Poznań, 1986.

29.Rimša – Rimša, E. Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės miestų antspaudai. Vilnius,1999.

30.Rowell – Rowell, Stephen C., Winning the living by remembering the dead? // Tarp istorijos ir būtovės: studijos prof. Edvardo Gudavičiaus 70-mečiui. Vilnius, 1999, p.87-121.

31.Petrauskas - Petrauskas, R. Lietuvos diduomenė XIVa. pabaigoje - XVa. Sudėtis - struktūra - valdžia. Vilnius, 2003.

Abbreviations and their translation  



altorius – altar
arkivyskupas – archbishop
auksakalys – goldsmith


b. – bajoras, bajorė – noble
bžn. – bažnyčia – church


daržai – garden
d.k. – didysis kunigaikštis – Grand Duke
dirbtuvė – workshop
d. – duktė – daughter
dv. – dvaras – estate
dvarionis – auricus
dvariškis – courtier


ež. – ežeras – lake


giminaitis – relative
gvardijonas – gvardianus


k. – kaimas – village
kalnas – hill
kan. – kanauninkas - canon
kancleris – chansellor
kantorius - cantos
kapitula – chapter
kardinolas – cardinal
katedra – cathedral
kilmingasis – noble
klebonas – dean
koplyčia – chapel
kunigaikštis – duke


laikytojas – holder
Lk – Lenkijos karalius – King of Poland
LDK – Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė – the Great Duchy of Lithuania
Ldk – Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis – Grand Duke of Lithuania
Livonijos ordinas – Order of the Livonia


magistras – master
maršalas – marshal
mėsinė - butcher
m. – miestas – town
miestiečiai – townspeople


namas – house
našlė – widow
notaras – notary
nuncijus – nuncio


ordinas – order
ordino narys – member of the order


paveldėtojas – successor, inheritor
pv. – pavietas – district
pilis – castle
popiežius – pope
prekyba - trade
priem. – priemiestis – suburb


raštininkas – scribe
rotušė – guildhall, magistrat
rūmai – palace


savininkas – owner, master
sen. – seniūnas – elder
s. – sūnus - son
sodas – garden
steigėjas – founder


šv. – šventasis - saint


tarnas – servant
tėvas – father
tėvonis – patrimon
tijūnas – sovereign‘s vicegerent


upė – river
ūkvedys – steward


vaitas – town administrator, voigt
vaivada - palatine
vld. – valdytojas
valstietis – paesant, serf
vicenotaras – vicenotary
viceprioras – vicepriorus
vienuolynas – cloister, convent, monastery
vienuolis – monk
vietininkas – vicegerent
vikaras – vicar
virėjas – cook
vysk. – vyskupas - bishop


ž. – žemė – estate, land, territory
žem. – žemininkas
žydai – Jewry
žr. – žiūrėk – look, vide supra
žmona – wife



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